- Bordley, James, III. Two Centuries of American Medicine, 1776-1976. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co., 1976.
- Castiglioni, Arturo. A History of Medicine. Translated from the Italian and edited by E. B. Krumbhaar. New York: Jason Aronson, 1975.
- Foley, John P., ed. The Jeffersonian Cyclopedia: a comprehensive collection of the views of Thomas Jefferson. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1900.
- Books from the Lilly Library, Indiana University. Indianapolis: Eli Lilly & Company, 1976.
- Norman, Jeremy M., ed. Morton’s Medical Bibliography: an annotated check-list of texts illustrating the history of medicine (Garrison & Morton). 5th ed. Aldershot, England: Scolar Press, 1991.
- Pettigrew, Thomas J. Medical Portrait Gallery. London: Fisher, Son, & Co., 1838.
- Sowerby, E. Millicent, comp. Catalogue of the Library of Thomas Jefferson (in five volumes). Washington: Library of Congress, 1952.
- Talbott, John H. A Biographical History of Medicine: excerpts and essays on the men and their work. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1970.
- Photos of Magendie, Gall, Laennec, Darwin, Cotugno, Bigelow, Van Swieten, and Scarpa courtesy of the National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland.
- Photos of Morgagni, Huxham, Pringle, Haller, Cullen, Heberden, Hunter, Baillie, Cooper, Bichat, and Bell are from Thomas Pettigrew’s Medical Portrait Gallery (1838) housed in Historical Collections and Services, Health Sciences Library, University of Virginia.
- Photo of Rush is from James Thacher’s American Medical Biography (1828) housed in Historical Collections and Services, Health Sciences Library, University of Virginia.
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